Skiing, recreation, sport, and mode of transportation that involves moving over snow by the use of a pair of long, flat runners called skis, attached or bound to shoes or boots. Competitive skiing is divided into Alpine, Nordic, and freestyle events. Competitions are also held in events such as speed skiing and snowboarding.

Skiing - ورزش اسکی

The oldest known skis date to between 8000 and 7000 BC and were discovered in Russia. Early skis have been found in many areas of northern Europe. Some of the first skis were short and broad, resembling snowshoes more than modern skis. Skiing certainly was not confined to Europe, though, as the first written references to skiing are from the Han dynasty and describe skiing in northern China. Many peoples who lived in climates with snow for many months of the year developed some form of skiing. Skiing also has long been employed for military purposes. Norwegian men on skis reconnoitred before the Battle of Oslo. There are much types of skiing as bellow.

Nordic Skiing

Nordic, or classic, skiing consists of techniques and events that evolved in the hilly terrain of Norway and the other Scandinavian countries.

Alpine Skiing

By the start of the 20th century, a second upstart style of skiing competition had joined the older established cross-country skiing races and ski-jumping contests of Nordic skiing. Modern Alpine competitive skiing is divided into four races—slalom, giant slalom, supergiant slalom, and downhill; each of which is progressively faster and has fewer turns than its predecessor on the list.

Freestyle Skiing

Freestyle skiing focuses on acrobatics and includes three events: acro, aerials, and moguls. Mogul skiing, the navigation of large bumps (moguls) on the slope, was incorporated into competition shortly after the introduction of aerials.

Governing Body

In 1924, International Ski Federation, was founded as the world governing body for skiing.

Skiing - ورزش اسکی

Early skis designed for sport and recreation were made from one piece of wood, often hickory, but laminated constructions began to be used in the 1930s. In the 1950s plastic running surfaces on the bottom of skis increased their speed and durability. By the 1990s skis were typically made by surrounding a foam core with wood, wrapping both layers with fiberglass combined with Kevlar, aluminum, titanium, or carbon for strength, and finally adding a plastic base. As early as the 19th century, Norwegians and others had designed skis with sides that curved up to form parabolic profiles when seen from an end.

Climate of IRAN

Iran is a high plateau by the latitude of twenty five to forty degrees and it is located in the northern hemisphere. The desert and semi-desert areas occupy more than half of the country’s land. About a third of Iran is also mountainous and a small part of Iran (including the southern plain of the Caspian Sea and the Khuzestan plain) is composed of fertile plains. Iran has a high climatic diversity. Iran is considered as a dry and semiarid climate in terms of precipitation.

Different climates of Iran

1. Moderate and humid climate

South coasts of Caspian Sea with moderate weather and abundant rainfall, is part of the moderate regions of the country.

Features of moderate and humid climate:

  • Rain in most seasons
  • High humidity
  • High vegetation and forest growth

2. Hot and dry climate

A significant portion of Iran’s area has hot and dry climate. Features of hot and dry climate:

  • The dry winds of these areas are very annoying
  • The desert sky is smooth and no clouds during most of the year
  • Low rainfall
  • Fog and storm occur very much
  • Lack of vegetation
  • High temperature difference between night and day
  • Cold and hard winters and hot and dry summers

3. Cold and mountainous climate

Alborz and Zagros Mountains and the western mountains of the country are part of this climate category. Features of cold and mountainous climate:

  • Extreme cold in winter
  • Moderate weather in summer
  • High snowfall
  • Too dry air

4. Hot and humid climate

This climate is along a narrow, relatively long coastal strip which is more than two thousand kilometers in length that begins from Arvand River in the southwest of Khuzestan province and ends in the Ghetto Bay in the southeast of Sistan and Baluchestan province. Features of hot and humid climate:

  • Intense heat
  • High humidity
  • Low rainfall
  • Moderate weather in winter
  • Low temperature difference between night and day

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