Mount Damavand is located around 60 kilometers northeast of the city in the eastern side of the Lar National Park where it towers above the surrounding area. It is located in southern part of Caspian Sea. Mount Damavand has an elevation of 5670 meters and its summit shows a small volcano crater. It is the highest point in the Middle East and the highest volcano in Asia. Mount Damavand is described as being a strato-volcano meaning that it is built up from layers of volcanic rock. It stands in an area which has been volcanically active and it rises from the southern rim of a 9 km wide caldera which is especially a large crater formed, when a volcano collapses into itself. There are certainly no historical records of Damavand erupting and scientific evidence shows that its last eruption occurred in 5300 BC. There could be a temptation to describe it as a dormant volcano, but the summit of Mount Damavand does emit spurts of hot sulfurous gases known as fumaroles and at lower levels, hot springs emerge indicating volcanic activity fairly close to the surface.
Mount Damavand is the highest volcanic peak in the Middle East which is also a national heritage site and national symbol of resistance and has a significant place in Persian mythology. In the topographic map of Iran, the location of Mount Damavand is marked as Central Alborz, an area known for some other prominent peaks such as Alam-Kuh and Tochal. There are more than 16 routes for climbing Mount Damavand the most popular being the southern route. Iranian Mountain Federation Camp in Polour village near Damavand usually serves as the first base for the mountaineers. There are shelters in all of the major routes including Bargah Sevom Camp on the southern route, Takht-e Fereydoun on the northeastern route and Sīmorgh shelter on the western route which is adored by mountaineers for its exquisite sunset view. There are several hot water springs and fumaroles from which hot sulfur emits forth, reminding the people that this beast of a mountain has a heart of fire beneath its snowy facade. In the Iranian myth of origin, Damavand is cited as the kingdom of Keyumars, the first human being and lawgiver. Jamshid, the mightiest king of Iran’s mythical history flew from the zenith of Damavand in a chariot driven by the subdued demons. Zahhak, the most atrocious villain in Iranian legends was nailed to a wall in Damavand by the great hero Fereydun. Arash, the tragic hero, sacrificed his life in throwing an arrow from the peak of Damavand to expand the territory of Iranian Empire.