The handicrafts of Isfahan represent the industry and art of the ancestors and displays of the taste and art of the people of Isfahan, which has been attracting domestic and foreign tourists over the years.
Iran is a high plateau by the latitude of twenty five to forty degrees and it is located in the northern hemisphere. The desert and semi-desert areas occupy more than half of the country’s land. About a third of Iran is also mountainous and a small part of Iran (including the southern plain of the Caspian Sea and the Khuzestan plain) is composed of fertile plains. Iran has a high climatic diversity. Iran is considered as a dry and semiarid climate in terms of precipitation.
Different climates of Iran
1. Moderate and humid climate
South coasts of Caspian Sea with moderate weather and abundant rainfall, is part of the moderate regions of the country.
Features of moderate and humid climate:
- Rain in most seasons
- High humidity
- High vegetation and forest growth
2. Hot and dry climate
A significant portion of Iran’s area has hot and dry climate. Features of hot and dry climate:
- The dry winds of these areas are very annoying
- The desert sky is smooth and no clouds during most of the year
- Low rainfall
- Fog and storm occur very much
- Lack of vegetation
- High temperature difference between night and day
- Cold and hard winters and hot and dry summers
3. Cold and mountainous climate
Alborz and Zagros Mountains and the western mountains of the country are part of this climate category. Features of cold and mountainous climate:
- Extreme cold in winter
- Moderate weather in summer
- High snowfall
- Too dry air
4. Hot and humid climate
This climate is along a narrow, relatively long coastal strip which is more than two thousand kilometers in length that begins from Arvand River in the southwest of Khuzestan province and ends in the Ghetto Bay in the southeast of Sistan and Baluchestan province. Features of hot and humid climate:
- Intense heat
- High humidity
- Low rainfall
- Moderate weather in winter
- Low temperature difference between night and day
The Shah Mosque, also known as New Abbasi Mosque, Royal Mosque, or Imam Mosque after the Iranian Revolution, is a mosque in Isfahan, Iran, standing in south side of Naghsh-e Jahan Square. It was built during the Safavid dynasty, ordered by Abbas I of Persia.
At the west of Naghsh-e Jahan Square, just in front of the Sheikh Lotfollah mosque, one of the most magnificent palaces of 17th century is located. The Ali Qapu palace is well-known palace all over Iran. The first part of palace was built in 1597. It was used as a residential palace. It is forty-eight meters high and there are six floors, each accessible by a difficult spiral staircase.
The Nasirolmolk Mosque, also known as the Pink Mosque, is a traditional mosque in Shiraz, Iran. It was built during Qajar dynasty rule of Iran. The mosque includes extensive coloured glass in its facade, and displays other traditional elements such as the Panj Kāse (“five concaved”) design. It is named in popular culture as the ‘Pink Mosque’, due to the usage of considerable pink colour tiles for its interior design.
Persepolis was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire (ca. 550–330 BCE). It is situated 60 km northeast of the city of Shiraz in Fars Province, Iran. The earliest remains of Persepolis date back to 515 BCE. It exemplifies the Achaemenid style of architecture. UNESCO declared the ruins of Persepolis a World Heritage Site in 1979.
The Golestan Palace is a masterpiece of the Qajar era, embodying the successful integration of earlier Persian crafts and architecture with Western influences. The walled Palace, one of the oldest groups of buildings in Teheran, became the seat of government of the Qajar family, which came into power in 1779 and made Teheran the capital of the country. Built around a garden featuring pools as well as planted areas, the Palace’s most characteristic features and rich ornaments date from the 19th century. It became a centre of Qajari arts and architecture of which it is an outstanding example and has remained a source of inspiration for Iranian artists and architects to this day. It represents a new style incorporating traditional Persian arts and crafts and elements of 18th century architecture and technology.
Khaju Bridge is one of the historical bridges on the Zayanderud, the largest river of the Iranian Plateau, in Isfahan, Iran. Serving as both a bridge and a weir, it links the Khaju quarter on the north bank with the Zoroastrian quarter across the Zayanderud. It also served a primary function as a building and a place for public meetings. It has been described as the city’s finest bridge.
Naqsh-e Rustam is an ancient necropolis located about 12 km northwest of Persepolis, in Fars Province, Iran, with a group of ancient Iranian rock reliefs cut into the cliff, from both the Achaemenid and Sassanid periods. Naqsh-e Rustam is the necropolis of the Achaemenid dynasty (c. 550–330 BC), with four large tombs cut high into the cliff face. These have mainly architectural decoration, but the facades include large panels over the doorways, each very similar in content, with figures of the king being invested by a god, above a zone with rows of smaller figures bearing tribute, with soldiers and officials in a sarcophagus.
- Qavam House, Shiraz
Qavam House (also widely called “Narenjestan e Ghavam”) is a traditional and historical house in Shiraz, Iran. It was built between 1879 and 1886 by Mirza Ibrahim Khan. The Qavam family were merchants originally from Qazvin. But they soon became active in the government during the Zand dynasty, followed by the Qajar, and Pahlavi dynasty as well.
- Tower of Silence, Yazd
Zoroastrians believed that the dead body would “pollute” the earth if buried in it; in order to combat this problem, they built the Towers of Silence close to the sky, where special caretakers would carry up the dead. In these large and exposed circular spaces, the sun and birds left behind nothing but bones that were later collected and finally disintegrated by lime and water.
- Wind Catchers, Yazd
Yazd is filled with old single-storey mud-brick buildings that are hidden around narrow alleys, creating a maze-like city structure that was initially meant to confuse potential attackers. Most homes contain an inner courtyard, often with a small pond, in order to cool down the buildings and improve air circulation. Some more fortunate residents could afford to build “badgir” or “wind-catchers” that drag fresh air down into the rooms and courtyards, maximizing airflow. Climbing up to a rooftop will open up another world; the earthen landscape that is created by the organic domes and magnificent “badgir” will give you an entirely different perspective on the old architecture of Yazd.
For those who crave to visit Iran whose historical monuments are not satisfactory enough, the numerous awe-inspiring landscapes surrounding Iran ranging from mountains to deserts, to forests and caves offer travelers a fantastic and memorable experience. In the following, you will find a glimpse over the most wonderful ones.
Ali Sadr Cave originally called Ali Saadr (meaning cold) is the world’s largest water cave which attracts thousands of visitors every year. It is located in Ali Sadr Kabudarahang County about 100 kilometers north of Hamadan, western Iran.
In the Northwestern part of Qeshm Island, Chahkooh Canyon (Mountain of Wells) is located 15km away from Tabl Village. The Chahkooh Canyon is known as The Great Canyon of The Middle-East and is inscribed as a UNESCO Global Geopark site. This Geosite is an exceptional example of erosion through rainstorm water.
Mount Damavand is known as the highest mountain in Iran and the highest volcano in the Middle East. It is located in the central part of the Alborz mountain range (central Alborz), and in the south of the Caspian Sea, in the Larijan district of Amol.
Varzaneh Desert is one of the beauty deserts of the eastern part of Isfahan and the central part of Iran. At the heart of this desert, sandy hills make a wonderful view that wind beautifully crafted them in various shapes, including longitudinal hills, crests and sandy pyramids.
Hormuz, mostly barren, hilly island of Iran on the Strait of Hormuz, between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, 8 km off the coast. The population may decline by half in summer through migration. Hormuz village is the only permanent settlement. Resources include red ochre for export.
Badab Soort Springs:
Badab Soort has become the world’s second largest Spring Saline water. Badab Soort’s springs are two distinct mineral springs with different natural characteristics, located at 1,840 metres above sea level. The first spring contains very salty water that gathers in a small natural pool. Its water is considered to have medicinal properties, especially as a cure for rheumatism and some types of skin diseases and skin conditions. The second spring has a sour taste and is predominately orange mainly due to the large iron oxide sediments at its outlet.