Great Wall of Gorgan

The ‘Red Snake’ in northern Iran, which owes its name to the red colour of its bricks, is at least 195km long.

A canal, 5m deep or more, conducted water along most of the Wall.

Its continuous gradient, designed to ensure regular water flow, bears witness to the skills of the land-surveyors responsible for marking out the Wall’s route.

Over 30 forts are lined up along this massive structure.

It is also known as the Great Wall of Gorgan, the Gorgan Defence Wall, Anushirvân Barrier, Firuz Barrier and Qazal Al’an, and sometimes Sadd-i-Iskandar, (Persian for dam or barrier of Alexander).

The wall is second only to the Great Wall of China as the longest defensive wall in existence, but it is perhaps even more solidly built than the early forms of the Great Wall.

Larger than Hadrian’s Wall and the Antonin Wall taken together, it has been called the greatest monument of its kind between Europe and China.

Red Snake

Great Wall of Gorgan

The system is remarkable not only in terms of its physical scale, but even more so in terms of its technical sophistication.

In order to enable construction works, canals had to be dug along the course of the defensive barrier, to provide the water needed for brick production.

These canals received their water from supplier canals, which bridged the Gorgan River via qanats.

The forts were filled with barracks of standardized design, suggesting that the Sassanian army was well organized.

Further evidence for a high level of organization of the Sassanian armed forces is provided by hinterland campaign bases, each of ca. 40 ha size.

In one of them, rectangular enclosures in neat double rows have been found, the remnants of a tent city, probably of a mobile field army.

The Gorgan Wall and its associated ancient military monuments provide a unique testimony to the engineering skills and military organization of the Sassanian Empire.

They help to explain its geographic extent, from Mesopotamia to the west of the Indian Subcontinent, and how effective border defence contributed to the Empire’s prosperity in the interior and to its longevity.

These monuments are, in terms of their scale, historical importance and sophistication, of global significance.

Red Snake

Great Wall of Gorgan

Shiraz County

Shiraz County is located in the southwest of Iran on the seasonal, Khoshk River.

Shiraz is the fifth most populous city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province.

In addition to its fame for being a major hub of “Electronic Industries” as well as “Medicine” in Iran, Shiraz is known as the “Cultural Capital” of Iran, which is inhabited by different ethnic groups.

Shiraz is regarded as the “Paradise of the Tourists”. Its geographical features provide for a range of activities including skiing in the winter resorts just some kilometers away, mountain climbing, and hiking in the woods.

Shiraz is famous for its wonderful Gardens; however, it can be visited for a diversity of purposes.

In the 13th century Shiraz became a leading center of the arts and letters due to the encouragement of its ruler and the presence of many Persian scholars and artists.

Shiraz was the capital of Persia during the Zand dynasty from 1750 until 1800.

Two famous poets of Iran Hafez and Sa’di are from Shiraz whose tombs are on the north side of the current city boundaries.


Shiraz County, Iran

The crafts of Shiraz consist of inlaid mosaic work of triangular design silver-ware pile carpet-weaving and weaving of Gilim and Jajim in the villages and among the tribes.

 In Shiraz industries such as cement production sugar fertilizers textile products wood products metalwork and rugs dominate.

Shiraz also has a major oil refinery and is also a major center for Iran’s electronic industries: 53% of Iran’s electronic investment has been centered in Shiraz.

Shiraz is home to Iran first solar power plant.


Shiraz, Persepolis

Persepolis is situated 70 km northeast of the modern city of Shiraz in the Fars Province of modern Iran.

In contemporary Persian, the site is known as Takht-e Jamshid. The earliest remains of Persepolis date from around 515 BCE.

To the ancient Persians, the city was known as Parseh, which means “The City of Persians”.

Among religious sights is Shahcheragh Shrine, housing the tomb of Ahmad ibn-e Musa, the brother of the eighth Imam Ali ibn-e Musa al-Reza, Vakil Mosque, Nasir al-Molk mosque, and Jame Atiq Mosque.

Another sight attributed to Achaemenid era is Pasargadae, which lies 43 Kilometers to the north of Persepolis.

Pasargadae was the first capital of the Achaemenid dynasty built in the reign of Cyrus the Great.

Saadi, and Hafez are two most popular poets of Shiraz and Iran.

Today, many people from all over the world come to visit their tombs.

Abyaneh Village

Abyaneh, which is also known as the Red Village because of its red soil and houses, is an ancient Iranian Village located at the foot of Karkas Mountain, 70 kilometers southeast of Kashan in Isfahan province. Abyaneh is a Village of living traditions and architectural styles. Researchers and archaeologists believe that the village originated about 1500 years ago and is one of the historical places in Iran that has become famous worldwide. According to archaeologists, the old mansions of the Abyaneh village were designed and built during the rule of the Seljuk, Qajar, Sassanid, and Safavid dynasties. Karkas Mountains and its surroundings were the hunting area for Safavid kings and Abyaneh was the destination for their summer vacation. Abyaneh’s high elevation causes cool summer and very cold winter days. Because of its mountainous setting, Abyaneh stayed isolated for many years and people’s customs and language is untouched and preserved. In Abyaneh people speak Farsi with a special dialect belonging to the village only. They still use some words from the Parthian era.

Abyaneh village

The Village is compact, with narrow and sloped lanes, and houses located on the slope as if placed on a stairway. The houses bear an ancient architectural style, featured by the use of clay as the construction material and latticed windows and wooden doors. Similar to other mountainous villages of Iran, Masouleh or Uraman Takht, Abyaneh has stepped structure with the roof of each house being the courtyard of the one above it.

Abyaneh village

One of the most interesting points about Abyaneh is the culture of its local residents. Elderly people of the village still speak Middle Persian, which was originally the language of Sassanian Persia and disappeared many centuries ago. The way people dress here is also very notable.Men wear a very loose pair of pants and the women’s traditional costume consists of a long colorful dress, along with a special pair of pants, and a white long scarf with colorful floral design named Charghad. Almost all of the women in the village wear this costume, just like their ancestors. And this tradition makes Abyaneh even more special.

Abyaneh village

Besides the charismatic beauty of the village, there are historic monuments as well. There is a Zoroastrian fire temple dating back to the Sassanid period, three castles, a pilgrimage site, and two mosques. The most famous monument of Abyaneh is The Great Mosque, with an ancient Mihrab made of walnut wood covered with carvings of calligraphy and floral designs. The Great Mosque is closed and cannot be visited because of its very long and valuable history.

Abyaneh village


Kashan is a city in the northern part of Isfahan province of Iran. This is a common destination for tourists due to its multiple historical sites after cities like Isfahan and Shiraz. It is a traditional city with many sites and surrounding attractive villages to discover. Kashan is divided into two parts including mountainous and desert. Kashan is cited in the neighbourhood of two of highest peaks of Karkas chain, Mount Gargash to the southwest of Kashan and Mount Ardehaal in the west of Kashan, also known as “Damavand of Kashan” and the highest peak of Ardehaal mountains, in the west side; and in the east side of the city, Kashan opens up to the central desert of Iran which the city is famous for. Kashan is also known for Maranjab Desert and Caravanserai located near the Salt Lake.


Kashan is a charming city due to its contrast between the parched immensities of the deserts and the greenery of the oasis. Archeologists discovered that this region was one of the primary centers of civilization in pre-historic ages in the Sialk Hillocks lied about 4km west of Kashan.


Kashan was also a leisure vacation spot for Safavid Kings. Fin Garden, specifically, is one of the most famous gardens of Iran. This beautiful garden with its pool and orchards was designed for Shah Abbas I as a classical Persian vision of paradise.


Traditional houses especially, Tabatabaei, Borujerdi, Ameri and Abbasi house feature an incredible architecture, tile work and stucco.


Archeological finds yielded conclusive evidence of the fact that Kashan has been the cradle of many Iranian traditional crafts. Kashan maintained its great importance as a center of traditional industries throughout all historical periods. This town, as a city associated with high-quality ceramic production in the medieval period, appears to have been a major site for the manufacture of fine wares.