Skiing, recreation, sport, and mode of transportation that involves moving over snow by the use of a pair of long, flat runners called skis, attached or bound to shoes or boots. Competitive skiing is divided into Alpine, Nordic, and freestyle events. Competitions are also held in events such as speed skiing and snowboarding.

Skiing - ورزش اسکی

The oldest known skis date to between 8000 and 7000 BC and were discovered in Russia. Early skis have been found in many areas of northern Europe. Some of the first skis were short and broad, resembling snowshoes more than modern skis. Skiing certainly was not confined to Europe, though, as the first written references to skiing are from the Han dynasty and describe skiing in northern China. Many peoples who lived in climates with snow for many months of the year developed some form of skiing. Skiing also has long been employed for military purposes. Norwegian men on skis reconnoitred before the Battle of Oslo. There are much types of skiing as bellow.

Nordic Skiing

Nordic, or classic, skiing consists of techniques and events that evolved in the hilly terrain of Norway and the other Scandinavian countries.

Alpine Skiing

By the start of the 20th century, a second upstart style of skiing competition had joined the older established cross-country skiing races and ski-jumping contests of Nordic skiing. Modern Alpine competitive skiing is divided into four races—slalom, giant slalom, supergiant slalom, and downhill; each of which is progressively faster and has fewer turns than its predecessor on the list.

Freestyle Skiing

Freestyle skiing focuses on acrobatics and includes three events: acro, aerials, and moguls. Mogul skiing, the navigation of large bumps (moguls) on the slope, was incorporated into competition shortly after the introduction of aerials.

Governing Body

In 1924, International Ski Federation, was founded as the world governing body for skiing.

Skiing - ورزش اسکی

Early skis designed for sport and recreation were made from one piece of wood, often hickory, but laminated constructions began to be used in the 1930s. In the 1950s plastic running surfaces on the bottom of skis increased their speed and durability. By the 1990s skis were typically made by surrounding a foam core with wood, wrapping both layers with fiberglass combined with Kevlar, aluminum, titanium, or carbon for strength, and finally adding a plastic base. As early as the 19th century, Norwegians and others had designed skis with sides that curved up to form parabolic profiles when seen from an end.


Chogan has been popular among the kings and Iranian grandee in the past and its name as an aristocratic sport is derived from that. Chogan, known also as polo, is a sporting team game with horses and a version of the modern polo game.  It was inscribed on the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2017. For the first time, Chogan was played during Achaemenians in Iran. As Achaemenians extended their borders to far and vast geographical spots, this ancient Iranian game found its way to other countries too. Chogan as one of the amusing activities between kings, rulers and wealthy people.


Kar Namag Ardashir Pabakan, is a middle Persian prose tale written in Sassanid Era. It narrates the story of Ardeshir I, the founder of this dynasty. It’s the first written document that mentions Chogan as an Iranian game. The theme of Chogan has been used widely in different areas of art and literature. For example, it’s been mentioned in the poems of Ferdowsi, Rudaki, Nezami, Sa’di, Hafez, and other great Persian poets. It has been also the theme in many valuable Persian miniatures and the designs on the potteries.


Chogan was played differently back then. Horse riding was more of a military and warfare practice. Therefore, this entertainment included horses’ military style marching and riding war horses. As the time went by, Chogan changed to the present day style. Polo firstly just had a recreational function in order to show the Iranian military horses talent. Chogan is a strategic game that requires physical readiness and skill for both riders and horses, just like a miniature battle. In the past, it was a play where the Persian riders exhibited their skills in riding, fighting, and playing as well as the fighting skills, speed, and agility of their horses. The horses of Chogan are called polo ponies. Since horse riding was a military practice in the past, Persians believed the horse that can do well in Chogan, can do well in the war too.


Today, in Chogan, ponies are full sized horses used for this traditional Iranian game. In Persian, they are referred to simply as Chogan horses. They should be equipped with safety gears to be ready for the races. They are supposed to have special leg wraps to be protected against the mallets. The line attached to the curb bit must be adjusted in a comfortable and free, so that ponies can be easily levered.

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