Hyrcanian Forest

According to UNESCO, Hyrcanian Forest form a unique forested massif that stretches 850 km along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. The history of these broad-leaved forests dates back 25 to 50 million years, when they covered most of this Northern Temperate region. These ancient forest areas retreated during the Quaternary glaciations and then expanded again as the climate became milder. Their floristic biodiversity is remarkable: 44% of the vascular plants known in Iran are found in the Hyrcanian region, which only covers 7% of the country. Hyrcanian Forest (also known as Caspian Forest), extends from the south of Azerbaijan to about 900 km to the east to the Iranian northern provinces of Gilan, Mazandaran and Golestan. This forest forms the outermost boundary of the west-Eurasian memorial deciduous forests to alpine thorn cushion corridors and forest-free dry vegetation of the Iranian highlands and Central Asia.

Hyrcanian Forest

The Hyrcanian Forest cover the northern slope of the Alborz Mountain in Iran at the southern edge of the Caspian Sea and it contains very rich ecosystems due to the particular orographic and climatic situation. Hyrcanian forest contain the most important and significant natural habitats for conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation. It also contains superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance. It is outstanding examples in the record of significant on-going geological processes in the development of landforms and significant geomorphic or physiographic features. It is also outstanding example representing significant ongoing ecological and biological processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial, ecosystems and communities of plants.

Hyrcanian Forest

To date, 180 species of birds typical of broad-leaved temperate forests and 58 mammal species have been recorded, including the iconic Persian Leopard. The ecosystems of the property support populations of many forest birds and mammals of the Hyrcanian region which are significant on national, regional and global scales. To date, 180 species of birds typical of broadleaved temperate forests have been recorded in the Hyrcanian region including Steppe Eagle, European Turtle Dove, Eastern Imperial Eagle, European Roller, Semi-collared Flycatcher and Caspian Tit. Some 58 mammal species have been recorded across the region, including the iconic Persian Leopard and the threatened Wild Goat.

Hyrcanian Forest

Climate of IRAN

Iran is a high plateau by the latitude of twenty five to forty degrees and it is located in the northern hemisphere. The desert and semi-desert areas occupy more than half of the country’s land. About a third of Iran is also mountainous and a small part of Iran (including the southern plain of the Caspian Sea and the Khuzestan plain) is composed of fertile plains. Iran has a high climatic diversity. Iran is considered as a dry and semiarid climate in terms of precipitation.

Different climates of Iran

1. Moderate and humid climate

South coasts of Caspian Sea with moderate weather and abundant rainfall, is part of the moderate regions of the country.

Features of moderate and humid climate:

  • Rain in most seasons
  • High humidity
  • High vegetation and forest growth

2. Hot and dry climate

A significant portion of Iran’s area has hot and dry climate. Features of hot and dry climate:

  • The dry winds of these areas are very annoying
  • The desert sky is smooth and no clouds during most of the year
  • Low rainfall
  • Fog and storm occur very much
  • Lack of vegetation
  • High temperature difference between night and day
  • Cold and hard winters and hot and dry summers

3. Cold and mountainous climate

Alborz and Zagros Mountains and the western mountains of the country are part of this climate category. Features of cold and mountainous climate:

  • Extreme cold in winter
  • Moderate weather in summer
  • High snowfall
  • Too dry air

4. Hot and humid climate

This climate is along a narrow, relatively long coastal strip which is more than two thousand kilometers in length that begins from Arvand River in the southwest of Khuzestan province and ends in the Ghetto Bay in the southeast of Sistan and Baluchestan province. Features of hot and humid climate:

  • Intense heat
  • High humidity
  • Low rainfall
  • Moderate weather in winter
  • Low temperature difference between night and day

Natural Attractions In Iran

For those who crave to visit Iran whose historical monuments are not satisfactory enough, the numerous awe-inspiring landscapes surrounding Iran ranging from mountains to deserts, to forests and caves offer travelers a fantastic and memorable experience. In the following, you will find a glimpse over the most wonderful ones.

Alisadr Cave:

Ali Sadr Cave originally called Ali Saadr (meaning cold) is the world’s largest water cave which attracts thousands of visitors every year. It is located in Ali Sadr Kabudarahang County about 100 kilometers north of Hamadan, western Iran.

Chahkooh Canyon:

In the Northwestern part of Qeshm Island, Chahkooh Canyon (Mountain of Wells) is located 15km away from Tabl Village. The Chahkooh Canyon is known as The Great Canyon of The Middle-East and is inscribed as a UNESCO Global Geopark site. This Geosite is an exceptional example of erosion through rainstorm water.

Mount Damavand:

Mount Damavand is known as the highest mountain in Iran and the highest volcano in the Middle East. It is located in the central part of the Alborz mountain range (central Alborz), and in the south of the Caspian Sea, in the Larijan district of Amol.

Varzaneh Desert:

Varzaneh Desert is one of the beauty deserts of the eastern part of Isfahan and the central part of Iran. At the heart of this desert, sandy hills make a wonderful view that wind beautifully crafted them in various shapes, including longitudinal hills, crests and sandy pyramids.

Hormuz Island:

Hormuz, mostly barren, hilly island of Iran on the Strait of Hormuz, between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, 8 km off the coast. The population may decline by half in summer through migration. Hormuz village is the only permanent settlement. Resources include red ochre for export.

Badab Soort Springs:

Badab Soort has become the world’s second largest Spring Saline water. Badab Soort’s springs are two distinct mineral springs with different natural characteristics, located at 1,840 metres above sea level. The first spring contains very salty water that gathers in a small natural pool. Its water is considered to have medicinal properties, especially as a cure for rheumatism and some types of skin diseases and skin conditions. The second spring has a sour taste and is predominately orange mainly due to the large iron oxide sediments at its outlet.

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